Lawrence E. Armstrong, Ph.D. is presently a Professor at the Human Performance Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology, University of Connecticut since 1990. He holds joint appointments in the Department of Nutritional Sciences and the Department of Physiology & Neurobiology. Formerly, he served as a Research Physiologist in the Heat Research Division of the Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natick, MA (1983 – 1990). His doctoral degree in Human Bioenergetics was earned at the Human Performance Laboratory, Ball State University, Muncie IN (1980 – 1983).
Professor Armstrong’s research specialties include human fluid and electrolyte balance, effects of mild dehydration on cognitive performance including mood, measurement of hydration status, thermoregulation, heat acclimatization, physiological responses to exercise, and dietary intervention (i.e., low salt diets, sport drinks), as they apply to sport and labor in hot environments. His field studies have focused on fluid-electrolyte balance in tennis players (Miami, FL), effects of diuretic-induced dehydration on running performance (Muncie, IN and Storrs, CT), heat exhaustion among soldiers (Panama), heat stress monitors (Australia), fluid and nutritional status of endurance cyclists (Wichita Falls, Texas), casualty rates at the Boston Marathon (Massachusetts), and cooling of heatstroke patients after a mass participation road race (Marine Corps Marathon, Washington, D.C. and Falmouth Road Race, MA). He is the author of the book Performing in Extreme Environments (Human Kinetics, 2000) and editor-author of the book Exertional Heat Illnesses (Human Kinetics, 2003). Dr. Armstrong is a Past President of the New England Chapter of the American College of Sports Medicine, and presently President of the national organization.
Human Hydration, LLC
The colors in the urine color chart have been tested in numerous research investigations. These colors have been selected precisely and even slight differences in color can alter the interpretation of hydration status.
This explains why we do not offer the urine color chart online. Different versions of computer software, computer monitors, and computer printers generate color charts that contain incorrect and invalid colors.
Thus, to maintain validity and to ensure that your hydration state is assessed accurately, we offer the color chart only by mail, in two formats: a pocket card, and a wall chart.
Lawrence Armstrong formed a limited liability company (Human Hydration, LLC) in 2011. In 2015, April Mershon purchased this company from him and moved it to the state of Virginia. Neither Professor Armstrong nor Mrs. Mershon receive income from the sale of urine color charts. All profits from the sale of color charts (beyond expenses) will be contributed to organizations that provide potable water to children and adults in Third World countries, where clean water is unavailable or in short supply. Examples of these organizations can be found at the web sites of:
• Living Water International: http://www.water.cc/living-water/resources/handouts/
Click on the titles below to download relevant scientific papers:
Urine Color Chart
On the following pages, you will learn about the science of urine color. If you wish, you can order your own copies by mail.
Color Chart Reproductions